Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice

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Theory and Practice

As the direct result of this, the industry is required to apply new engineering philosophy such as Rapid Response to Manufacturing RRM. RRM concept uses the knowledge of previously designed products in support of developing new products. The RRM environment is developed by integrating technologies such as feature-based CAD modeling, knowledge-based engineering for integrated product and process design and direct manufacturing concepts.

Product modeling within RRM requires advanced CAD technology to support comprehensive knowledge regarding the design and fabrication of a product. This knowledge-intensive environment utilizes knowledge-based technologies to provide a decision support utility throughout the design life cycle. Direct manufacturing uses rapid prototyping, tooling and manufacturing technologies to quickly verify the design and fabricate the part.

RP allows for automatic construction of physical models and has been used to significantly reduce the time for the product development cycle and to improve the final quality of the designed product. Before the application of RP, computer numerically controlled CNC equipments were used to create prototypes either directly or indirectly using CAD data. CNC process consists of the removal of material in order to achieve the final shape of the part and it is in contrast to the RP operation since models are built by adding material layers after layers until the whole part is constructed.

In RP process, thin-horizontal-cross sections are used to transform materials into physical prototypes. Steps in RP process are illustrated in Figure 1. Figure I. Generic RP Process Depending on the quality of the final prototype, several iterated is possible until an acceptable model is built. In this process, CAD data is interpreted into the Stereolithugraphy data format. Stereolithugraphy or "stl" is the standard data format used by most RP machines.

By using "stl", the surface of the solid is approximated using triangular facets with a normal vector pointing away from the surface in the solid. An example of triangulated surface using the st1 format is illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2. A wide range of technologies are developed to transform different materials into physical parts.

For RP process, materials are categorized into liquid, solid and powdered. SLA is a liquid-based process. The material vat is part of the machine and is only removed if the liquid resin replaced. The SLA process uses the Ultraviolet laser beams to solidify the liquid polymer as it traces each layer. The part and the support are built simultaneously. The finished part is then manually removed, cleaned and finally post-cured using ultraviolet chamber.

FDM is a solid-based process. The build material is melted inside an extrusion head where the temperature is contorted based on the type of the material used ABS, wax, etc. This semi-liquid material is then extruded and deposited layerby-layer. The finished part is then manually removed and cleaned. A C02laser is raster scanned across the surface of the powder, melting and bonding the power together. In this process the part is built inside the powered material which can then be brushed off and reused. Sample parts are illustrated in Figure 4. Figure 4. Sample RP parts As Rapid Prototyping RP technology becomes more mature, it is beginning to lend itself to other applications such as rapid tooling and rapid manufacturing.

Some traditional tool making methods are considering the use of RP technologies to directly or indirectly fabricate tools. This is considered as a good alternative to the traditional mold making since it is more efficient and requires less lead-time. This approach is also less expensive and allows for quick validation of designs. In direct RT method, the RP process is used for direct fabrication of the tools.

In summary, rapid tooling is described as a process which uses an RP model as: 1. A pattern to create mold quickly e. Copy an RP form into a metal e. Uses the RP process directly to fabricate a limited volume of tools. RM is the automated fabrication of products directly from CAD digital data. RM methods are categorized into the following three categories: I. One-Time Use Parts Resemble the minimum required functionality of the final part.

Developed in batch-size of one and used for short duration. High Cost. Individually Customized Parts Developed in batch-size of one for an indefinite period of time.

Durability of the parts is an issue and is based on the material used and its properties. Multiple Item Production Runs Methods for rapidly manufacture low volume production runs. Not economically efficient to create mass quantities of identical parts using rapid manufacturing In summary, various RP, RT and RM solutions are available and it is difficult for any organization to know which one is the most appropriate. It is recommended that companies compare and investigate advantages and disadvantages for all available methods and then select the one that is most suitable for their operational needs.

The purpose of this edited book is to provide a comprehensive collection of the latest research and technical work in the area of Rapid Prototyping, rapid tooling and rapid manufacturing. This book is developed to serve as a resource for researcher and practitioners. It can also be used as a text book for advanced graduate studies in product design, development and manufacturing. In chapter 1, Kridle gives an introduction to structure and properties of engineering materials, testing methods used to determine mechanical properties, and techniques that can be used to select materials for rapid prototyping.

In chapter 2, Abouel Nasr and Kamrani will introduce a new methodology for feature extraction and information communication using IGES data. DICOM is becoming a global information standard that is being used by virtually every medical profession that utilizes images within healthcare industry. Automatic feature recognition fiom CAD solid systems highly impacts the level of integration. Non contact-based reverse engineering is discussed in chapter 4 by Creehan and Binanda. In chapter 5, Desai and Binanda present the contacted-based reverse engineering process.

In chapter 6 Kim and Nnaji present a discussion on virtual assembly. This chapter will discuss how assembly operation analysis can be embedded into a service-oriented collaborative assembly design environment and how the integrated process can help a designer to quickly select robust assembly design and process for rapid manufacturing. A new innovative RP process is presented by Frank in chapter 7. A description of how CNC milling can be used for rapid prototyping is presented in this chapter. The proposed methodology uses a layer-based approach for machining for automatic machining of common manufactured part geometries.

Khoshnevis and Asiabanpour will introduce the SIS process in chapter 8. The process works by joining powder particles through sintering in the part's body, and by sintering inhibition at the part boundary. This fabrication technique is capable of utilizing various types of materials to produce parts with high surface quality at high fabrication speed. Method for strategic justification of RP technologies is presented in chapter 10 by Narian and Sarkis. Wilson and Rosen give a discussion on a method for selection of a RM technology under the geometric uncertainty inherent to mass customization.

This topic is presented in chapter Specifically, they define the types of uncertainty inherent to RM, propose a method to account for this uncertainty in a selection process and propose a method to select a technology under uncertainty. Ali K. Kamrani, Ph. To Sonia and Arshya Acknowledgments We would like to thank authors that participated in this project. We would also like to thank Mr. Steven Elliot and Ms. Rose Antonelli from Springer US publishing for giving us the opportunity to fulfill this project.

Structural Properties of Materials 1. Crystalline Structures 1. Non-crystalline Amorphous Structures 1. Engineering Material Classification 1. Metals 1. Ceramics and Glass 1. Polymers 1. Composite Materials 1. Mechanical Properties,of Materials 1. Tensile Modules 1. Engineering Stress 1. Engineering Strain 1. Ductility 1. True Stress and True Strain 1. Toughness Tests 1. Hardness Tests 1. Flexure Tests 1. Creep Test 1. Polymers used in Rapid Prototyping 1.

Material Selection xxiii xxix xxxi xvi Part I. History and Overview 2. Standard data format 2. Start Section 2. Global section 2. Directory entry section DE 2. Parameter data section PD 2. Terminate section 2. The Feature extraction Methodology 2. Basic IGES entities 2. The Overall object-oriented data structure of the proposed methodology 2. Geometry and topology of B-rep 2. Classification of loops 2. Definition of the Data Fields of the Proposed Data structure 2.

Algorithm for extracting entries from directory and parameter sections 2. Algorithm for extracting the basic entities of the designed part 2. An Example for identifying the concave edgelfaces 2. Algorithm for determining the concavity of the edge 2. Algorithms for feature extraction Production rules 2.

An Illustrative Example 2. Introduction 3. History 3. DICOM structure 3. Entity- Relationship models 3. DICOM components 3. Current applications 3. Creehan and Bopaya Bidanda 4. Introduction 4. Non-contact reverse engineering Techniques 4. Reverse Engineering Taxonomy 4. Active Technique - Laser Scanning 4. Passive Technique - Three-Dimensional Photogrammetry 4. Medical Imaging 4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging 4. Computed Tomography 4. Ultrasound Scanning 4. Medical Image Data File 4.

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction 4. Applications 4. Introduction 5. Need for reverse engineering 5. Contact Based Reverse Engineering Systems 5. Types of CMM Configurations xviii 5. Bridge Type 5. Applications 5. Gantry type 5. Cantilever Type 5. Horizontal Arm Type 5. Articulated Arm Type 5. Specifications of Coordinate Measuring machines 5. Control types 5.

Mounting options 5. CMM Measurement process 5. Digitization from the Surface 5. Preprocessing of The Point Clouds 5. Point processing as applied to a Knee Joint 5. Surface fitting 5. Performance Parameters of CMMs 5. Scanning speed 5. CMM probe accuracy 5. CMM Structural Deformations 5. Recent advances in CMM technology 5. Reverse Engineering method based on Haptic Volume Removal 5. Nnaji 6. History and Overview 6. Modern Design and product development 6. Collaborative Virtual Prototyping and simulation 6.

Service-oriented Collaborative Virtual Prototyping and Simulation 6. Virtual Assembly analysis 6. Assembly design formalism and assembly design model generation 6. Assembly analysis model AsAM generation 6.

Theory and Practice

Pegasus Service Manager 6. Service Providers 6. Implementations 6. Contributions 6. Frank 7. Background 7. Related Work 7. Assumptions 7. Approach to setup Planning 7. Approach to Tool Selection 7. Challenges with Rapid Fixturing 7. General System model 7. Limitations and Future Work 7. Introduction 8. The sis process materials 8. The sis process machine path generation 8. Step 1: slicing algorithm 8. Step 2: machine path generation 8.

The SIS process optimization 8. Physical part fabrication 8. Powder waste Reduction 8. Introduction 9. CC Process error analysis 9. CC Applications 9. Ceramic part Fabrications 9. CC machine structure for Ceramics Processing 9.

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Preparing ceramic Paste 9. Prefabricated Ceramic Parts 9. Fabrication of pre-functional piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate PZT ceramic components and thermo-plastic parts 9. Design considerations 9. Experiments 9. Construction Automation 9. Challenges faced by Construction industry Today 9. The current state of automation in construction sites 9. Barriers for construction automation 9. The needs for an innovative construction process 9.

CC concrete formwork design 9. Physical properties of CC formwork material 9. CC nozzle geometry 9. Fabrication of vertical concrete formwork 9. Placing fresh concrete 9. Results 9. Extraterrestrial construction 9. Conclusion Part III. Introduction Investment justification factors Strategic and Operational Benefits Cost Systems Characteristics and Factors Inter- and Intra-Firm Adaptability Platform Neutrality and Interoperability Scalability Reliability xxi Ease of Use Customer Support Step 1: Setting up the Network Decision Hierarchy The Planning Horizon Step 2: Painvise Comparisons Step 3: Calculate Relative Importance Weights Step 4: Form a Supermatrix Step 5: Arrive at a Converged set of Weights Wilson and David Rosen 27 1 Uncertainty and its representations Selection for rapid manufacturing Illustrative example: direct production of caster wheels Illustrative example: direct production of hearing aid shells Recent Literature on Justification Techniques Analytic Hierarchy Process and Expert Choice Identify the competitive criteria and their measures Structuring the hierarchy Determine the overall weight for each alternative and select the alternative that has the highest weight An Illustrated Example Summary Index List of Figures Figure Schematic of common crystal structure Figure Thermal expansion behavior of crystalline materials Figure Examples of crystal imperfections Figure Thermal expansion behavior of an amorphous material Figure Polymer Structures Figure Uniaxial tensile test specimen shape Figure Load-displacement behavior in metals and polymer Figure Normal load, Pn,and shear loads, Ps Figure Schematic showing the original and the deformed sizes of the gage section of a uniformly stretched tensile test specimen Figure Schematic of the specimen setup in Charpy impact test Figure Schematic of test specimen, loading, and support in flexure tests Figure 2- 1.

Solid Modeling technology evolutions Figure Translation using a Neutral File Figure IGES translators Figure IGES file structure Figure Structure of Directory Section Figure Structure of Parameter Data Section Figure Structure of the proposed methodology Figure Flowchart of extraction and classification of features Figure Hierarchy of classes and attributes of the designed object Figure Simple and Compound Features Figure 1.

Convex and Concave Features and Edges Figure Classificationsof Convex Features Figure The surface normal vectors Figure Classification of Edges Figure Classification of Loops Figure The Direction of Edge xxiv Figure A concave Edge Example Figure Illustrative Example Figure 3- 1.

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A CT image Figure Figure E-R model Figure DICOM components. DICOM images in the dental field. Figure 1. DICOM image information in text format. Displaying a treatment plan using CERR. Dose volume histogram DVH. DICOM applications in rapid prototyping.

Reverse engineering taxonomy2. The triangle formed between the laser, the scanned part, and the sensors. Three-dimensional laser scanners. The triangles formed between the multiple image Perspectives Figure General Electric 3. General Electric Sytec i CT scanner. Relationship between reverse engineering and rapid prototyping. Examples of Bridge type CMMs.

Examples of Gantry type CMMs. Examples of Cantilever type CMMs. Schematic Diagram for a CMM. Scanning Probe path. Re-sampling process for mesh generation. CMM scanning process. Point cloud before and after preprocessing. Measurement accuracy during slow and fast speed scanning Figure Haptic volume sculpting based reverse engineering. Construction of a Nano CMM.

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Prototype of the Nano CMM. Construction and prototype of a nanoprobe. Rapid prototyping in product development. Service triangular relationship. Collaborative virtual prototype model generation. Virtual assembly analysis. Service-oriented VAA architecture. Service transactions in VAA. Assembly models for VAA. Pegasus Service Manager.

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  2. Rapid prototyping - Wikipedia.
  3. The Etruscan Chimera (Archaeological Mysteries, No. 6).
  4. Thermal and Stress analysis with the Finite Element Method?
  5. Irradiation to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Prepared Meals;
  6. VAA service provider. Aluminum concept car and body frames Buchholz VAA for a welded extruded frame. VAA for a hinge with three rivets. Free-form surface being machined from two orientations. A sample part. Model with sample cross section used for visibility mapping. Visible ranges of one segment of a polygonal chain. Layer-based toolpath boundaries. Distance to the deepest visible segment at one orientation. Tool length requirement. Tool diameter requirement.

    Cutter contact area for flat- and ball-end mill. Comparison of traditional vs. Figure 7- Setup for Rapid Machining. Jack model. Bone model. Visibility orientations for the femur. Finished prismatic model. SLA model. Example models. Example part with non-orthogonal feature. Parts with no feasible axis. Stages of the SIS Process. Extraction of the Fabricated Part. Selective Inhibition Sintering Process Steps. Salt Wash Off and Part Extraction.

    Steps for a sample part production using KI solution xxvi Figure Slicing Algorithm Steps. Machine Path Generation Steps. Hatch Path Generation Steps. Visualization CAD model and the machine path left Figure Base Part. Part Breaking Mechanism. Part Breakdown for Surface Quality Rating.

    Figure 8. General Form of the Component Desirability Function. Figure 8- Moveable Fingers Mask System. Schematic of CC extrusion and filling process Figure Schematic of trowels and extrusion assembly Figure Cross-section comparisons of layered boundaries Figure Geometric description of local layered process error Figure CC system configurations for ceramic part fabrications Figure Demonstrations of CC constructability Figure Advanced ceramic structures. An adapted CC system for fabricating pre-functional ceramic and thermoplastic parts.

    Material feeding system with adjustable length L between rollers and heating barrel Figure 1. Schematic of CC working platform to prevent thermal contraction 23 1 Figure Schematic of die shape designs and sectional view of layers Figure Showing customized nozzle shape and its actual fabrication Figure Fabricated 2. Figure 9- Schematic of the automatic construction of a residential building. A single task robot, Surf Robo.

    The first automated construction system applied steel concrete structure. Basic components of a typical wall formwork Figure Closer sections of wall form. Excessive friction force causes some voids on extruded flow. Specialized CC nozzle assemblies. Extrusion flow control by new CC trowels. A concrete wall form fabricated by the CC machine. CC concrete placing procedures. Placing concrete in layer by layer without using form ties.

    Effective Techniques For Rapid Prototyping

    A concrete wall made by CC machine. Certainty Equivalent Determination. Hurwicz Selection Criteria Figure 3. Summary of Steps for Selection for Rapid Manufacturing. Figure 5. Model of steel caster wheel Figure 6. Hearing Aid Shell. Selected properties of relevant polymers Table Classification of Loops Table Definitions of classes and attributes Table Extraction of Vertices Table Extraction of Edges Table Extraction of Loops Table Extraction of Faces Table Extraction of Features Table Machining Information Table AsAM for welding Table AsAM for riveting Table Build and Post Process Times Table 7- 2.

    Comparison of Total Processing Time Table Part surface quality rating system Table Results of testing compressive strength Table Initial Supermatrix Table 1. Caster wheel dimensions Table Attribute Ratings Table 3. Hurwicz evaluation parameters Table 5. Hearing Aid Shell Dimensions Table Attribute Ratings Table Merit Function Values and Hurwitz factors Table Jinho Gino Lim, Ph. Kevin D. Creehan, Ph. Salil Desai, Ph.

    Bopaya Bidanda, Ph. Bart 0. Nnaji, Ph. Matthew C. Frank, Ph. Bahram Asiabanpour ,Ph. Behrokh Khoshnevis, Ph. Rakesh Narain, Ph. Joseph Sarkis, Ph. Jamal 0. Wilson, Ph. Systems Realizations Laboratory, The G. David Rosen, Ph. Khaled M. Gad El Mola, Ph. Parsaei, Ph. Herman R. Leep, Ph.

    RP is performed by either material removal or material addition. In material-removal type RP processes, the part is produce by machining it is out of a block of material; mainly using computer numeric controlled CNC machining centers. In materialaddition type RP, the prototype is made by adding layers of materials using one of the available RP technologies.

    Earlier prototyping materials and technologies were used to provide product designers with the ability to visualize the product, but with limited ability to assess the functional performance of the product. Nonetheless, prototyped parts also need to allow for design validation assessment of the mechanical and physical behaviors ; which indicates that the prototyping material should have the same characteristics as the production material.

    This was only available in limited situations where the prototyped parts were made using removal processes, casting processes, or metal spray deposition. However, recent advances in rapid prototyping technologies have Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice allowed the use of production type pol-ymersthat can be used to assess the functional behavior of these materials.

    One of the shortcomings of testing prototyped products made of production type materials is that the material structure and the mechanical response of the prototyped part may not match those resulting from conventional processing forming, molding, etc. This is caused by differences in processing conditions between RP and conventional processing. For example, if metal spray deposition is used for rapid prototyping purposes, the microstructure and level of porosity in the prototyped part are likely to be different from those of a cast or stamped product of the same size and shape.

    Therefore, the goal of this chapter is to provide an introduction to structure and properties of engineering materials, testing methods used to determine mechanical properties, and techniques that can be used to select materials for material-addition type rapid prototyping. Based on their structure, materials can be classified as either crystalline or non-crystalline or amorphous '. Crystalline structures are organized structures in which atoms and molecules of solids arrange themselves in a regular and repeating manner that is called lattice.

    On the other hand, amorphous structures have some level of local order relative to their neighbors, but globally, they do not have an ordered structure like crystalline materials. Another difference between the two types of materials is related to their different thermal expansion behavior; this will be explained in more detail in sections 1.

    Figure shows a schematic of the atom arrangement in each of these three aforementioned Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice 3 types of structures. Schematic of common crystal structures a BCC, b FCC, and c HCP Upon heating, a crystalline material undergoes uniform thermal expansion change in volume per unit weight as temperature increases until it reaches its melting temperature, T,,,, at which the material turns into a liquid.

    The heat required to transform the material from a solid at T, to a liquid also at T, is called the heat of fusion. After the material melts, it begins to expand at a higher rate, as can be seen in Figure Three types of defects or imperfections are typically observed in crystalline structure. Point defects such as vacancy type defects, where an atom is missing at one of the locations in the unit cell.

    Line defects such as edge dislocations, where an additional half plane of atoms is present in the lattice. Surface defect such as grain boundaries separating crystals grains. Schematics of the examples given for each type of defect are presented in Figure These defects along with the material structure play an important role in determining the material properties.

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    Thermal expansion behavior of crystalline materials Extra halfplane of atoms Vacancy Grain 7 Figure Examples of crystal imperfections a vacancy, b edge dislocation, and c grain boundaries. Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice 1. As an amorphous material is heated, it expands at a constant rate until it reaches a point beyond which the solid starts to expand at a higher rate. This point is known as the glass transition temperature, T,.

    The material continues to expand at this higher rate even as it is transforming into a liquid. Unlike crystalline structures, there is no sudden change in thermal expansion coefficient at the melting point of an amorphous material as can bee seen in Figure It is should be noted that T, depends on cooling rate; therefore, a range is specified for T, in polymers2.

    Thermal expansion behavior of an amorphous material 1. Engineering materials are typically classified into four classes: metals, ceramics and glasses, polymers, and composite materials. A general description of each class of engineering materials is provided in this section. Materials of all types can be used for rapid prototyping purposes. Metals are extracted from ores either directly or indirectly1.

    Metals possess several attractive properties including their yield strength maximum stress that can be applied without causing plastic, or permanent, deformation , ultimate tensile strength maximum stress that can be applied without causing necking , stiffness resistance to deformation or deflection , electrical and thermal conductivities, toughness ability to absorb energy without fracture , hardness resistance to deformation by indentation as well as many others.

    Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice 7 Metals are available in three forms i cast metals ii wrought metals, and iii powder metals. Cast metals are primarily fabricated into useful products through melting and casting into shapes. Wrought metals are processed to have a desired structure through multiple hot or hot and cold rolling operations starting from a cast slab. They are used in the manufacture of products through deformation processes.

    Powder metals are used for powder metallurgy processes. Metals are also classified as ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals are iron-based metals such as steels and cast irons, and non-ferrous metals include all other metals. The properties of pure metals can be enhanced through the production of alloys. An alloy is produced through the addition of other elements to the metal; the alloyihg element s need not be metallic. For example, steel is produced by adding carbon to iron; the amount of carbon in steel directly influences its strength.

    They are widely available in nature and are inorganic materials; however, there crystalline structure is different from that observed in metals so that different sized atoms are accommodated in the crystal3. Ceramics are compounds of a metal or semi-metal and at least one more non-metallic material. Traditional ceramics that are base on silicates; such as clay and cement products. New ceramics that are not based on silicates; such as alumina or aluminum oxide A and cubic boron nitride CBN. Glasses are silica SO2 based and have an amorphous structure. The name olymer comes from two Greek words poly and meres meaning "many parts"!

    Polymers have an amorphous or a semi-crystalline structure, which is a combination of crystalline and amorphous structures. Polymers have lower density, strength and stiffness than metals. They also have very low electrical conductivities, which makes them suitable for use as insulation material.

    Additional information on the types of polymers that are used in rapid prototyping processes is provided in Section 4. Polymers are classified into three groups: 8 Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice 1. Thermoplastics: have a linear or branched structure and can be resoftened by heating and then reshaped. Thermosets: have cross-linked structures that develop upon curing controlled heating to promote cross linking. Once cured, they cannot be reshaped.

    Elastomers: also have a cross-linked structure. They possess elastic behavior similar to that of natural rubber. A schematic showing linear and cross-linked type polymers can be seen in Figure Composite materials consist of a matrix material and the reinforcing material that is imbedded in the matrix material. In addition to holding the reinforcing material, the matrix provides the bulk material in the composite structure and provides means for supporting and transferring applied loads.

    The imbedded reinforcing material can be in the form of continuous or discontinuous fibers, as well as particles and flakes. The properties of the composite materials are affected by the volume fraction and size of the reinforcing material. In fiber reinforced composites, the length and orientation of the fibers play an important role in tailoring the properties of the composite Examples of materials used as reinforcing agents are glass and carbon fibers, silicon carbide, Kevlar 49, and steel filaments.

    Rapid Prototyping: Theory and Practice 9 Composite materials are most commonly classified based on the matrix material; therefore, three types of composite materials are available: 1. Metal matrix composites MMCs 2.

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    Polymer matrix composites PMCs 3. Ceramic Matrix composites CMCs 1.

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    Using "Wizard of Oz" prototyping, they would do things like manually routing search queries to people who could answer them. Read about Aardvark and think about how you could be testing your own startup ideas with prototypes. Keynote and PowerPoint can be great tools for creating simple prototypes. You probably already have one of them, and there are many UI kits available for each. Read this article to learn some of the best practices for prototyping in Keynote. Rapid prototyping can happen in code not recommended unless you're an experienced front-end developer.

    Jumping straight in to HTML can help you focus on content and data rather than aesthetics, and nothing beats a prototype you can play around with on the device you'll be building for in the end. Learn how 42Floors. There are TONS of prototyping tools. These are some of my favorites.

    It's easy, and you should already be familiar with how to use this tool, so no learning curve! Balsamiq : a personal favorite. Easy to use, preloaded with lots of common UI controls, and linkable for interactive prototypes. Note that the quirky design is intentional: it's meant to keep you from thinking too much about the aesthetic.

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    WebZap : an awesome plugin for Photoshop. Check out their videos to see how quickly you can create common layouts. Bootstrap : if you want to prototype in code, Bootstrap is a great way to skip a lot of the basics of implementing a simple UI. Only recommended for experienced developers. Give the Balsamiq web demo a try. It's a great tool that is easy to get started with.

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