World Scientific. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics - Cramer, John G. Relational particle models.
From space to time : temporal adverbials in the world's languages
Use as toy models for quantum geometrodynamics - Anderson, Edward Class. Time and complex numbers in canonical quantum gravity - Barbour, Julian B.
D47 The Timelessness of quantum gravity. Feynman and A. Hibbs Quantum. Derivational aspect Aktionsart appears to be particularly well developed in many indigenous North American languages; eastern Europe could be another example of an area where these phenomena are well represented.
Università degli Studi di Palermo
It has thus, for instance, been established that both pasts and perfectives may arise from perfects, whereas imperfectives often develop out of progressives see Bybee et al. There is a strong correlation between the way in which a tense-aspect gram is expressed—whether it is inflectional or periphrastic—and how far it has advanced on its path of grammaticalization.
Thus, perfects and progressives are overwhelmingly periphrastic, whereas past and perfectives are more prone to be inflectional. We have been forced to neglect a number of gram types, most of which have interesting geographical distributions; among these are habituals, iteratives, frequentatives, dedicated narrative forms, resultatives and experientials. We have also neglected tense and aspect marking in embedded contexts, as well as the interplay between tense-aspect and other categories, such as negation many languages have special tense-aspect forms in negative contexts, cf.
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Chapter Tense and aspect are notoriously difficult categories to describe adequately, and the treatment in grammars is often problematic, especially if one wants to use it for cross-linguistic comparison. As far as possible, we have tried to apply consistent criteria in classifying tense-aspect phenomena. For this reason, our interpretations sometimes differ from those found in grammars.
From space to time: Temporal adverbials in the world's languages
The reader should thus not be surprised if a language is classified in an unexpected way. In compiling the data for the maps on tense and aspect, we have drawn upon two earlier large-scale typological surveys, namely those presented in Dahl and Bybee et al. Discussions of areal tendencies in tense-aspect systems based on the sample in Bybee et al.
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