Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability


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Can glean and run number children of this fear to Save jS with them. Brahmaputra-Jamuna and R. Ganges flood Plain. The alluvial plain consists of an alluvial fan formed by the Brahmaputra-Jamuna and old Brahmaputra River, and the natural levee, back-swamp, and delta mainly formed by the Ganges River and also he mentioned the flood features of land form units [28]. Masood explained about the vulnerability and risk of mid-eastern Dhaka by using DEM and 1D hydrodynamic model, presented the flood risk and vulnerability from DEM data of mid-eastern part of Dhaka [29].

Rahman wrote about the flood risk and reduction approaches in Bangladesh and evaluated partial flood control model during monsoon season [30]. These reports and maps are not concerned with the Flood inundation mapping by using satellite data and geomorphological land classification map of the study area. Realizing the situation this research has been conducted on greater Dhaka district, where the major focus to generate the flood inundation mapping based on the satellite data and geomorphological land classification map compare with the land use change.

From the above discussion it is very clear to understand that, no research has been done before in Greater Dhaka district zone regarding to the evaluation of flooding risk on the basis of geomorphological land classification map. Specifically, the purpose of the study is to evaluation of flooding risk using satellite data and geomorphological land classification map concerning with the big flooding event , and and with urbanization of greater Dhaka district zone. The study area chosen for this research is the greater Dhaka district of Bangladesh Figure 2 , where the total amount of population is 18,, [31].

The greater Dhaka city is located mainly on an alluvial terrace, popularly known as the Modhupur terrace in Pleistocene period. Topographically, Dhaka city is relatively a flat land, the surface elevation of the city ranges between 1 and 14 meters [32]. It belongs to sub-tropical monsoon zone and experience humid climatic conditions. Dhaka city experiences about mm annual rainfall of where more than 80 percent rainfall take place during monsoon.

Historically, Dhaka city has been built up in a flood plain with numerous water bodies and canals that used to drain water from its upper reaches during monsoon season. As population increased, these areas were encroached. Moreover, unplanned urbanization, or urban sprawl has been taking place since in Greater Dhaka area which will be resulted more people to live in highly flood vulnerable place [33] [34].

About this book

Figure 2. Geographical location of the study area. The data for generating flood risk map of the study area has been collected from. The U. Field observation data has been collected to measure ground control points with the ground verification data by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh GSB. Satellite data was interpreted using photographic and geotechnical elements besides field knowledge about the study area. Table 1. Materials and methods. Figure 3. Methodology flowchart of the study.

Figure 4 shows a cross session of flood plain with different landform units. The elevation range between 0 and 6 m were used to separate various landform unites.


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From the above cross section profile, it can be seen that the areas from 0 - 4 m is under the high vulnerability of submerging when flood occur. It is observed that the land-cover also have closed relation on flood hazard. The areas of agricultural lands are also belong to submerged areas during flood time, and also corresponding to 2 m elevation boundary line. Agricultural land is characterized with the low-lying and well irrigated areas.

Figure 5 could also explain the geomorphological landform unit clearly. Cross section profile Figure 5 provides a side view of the relief of the terrain along a line drawn between two locations C0 to C1 on DEM map Figure 4. This map included 2 m interval contour lines. From this detection, it is easy to determine the flood basin base on elevation and land cover classification. Figure 4. Figure 5. Unplanned urban expansion is one of the most important factors intensifying flood hazards in Greater Dhaka district zone.

From the period of to Figure 6 and Table 2 , the major land-use change is caused by the increasing demand for non-agri- cultural land because of urban and infrastructure development. The decrease of agri- culture land use was caused by development of infrastructure and factory in Manikganj Sadar and Dhaka district zone. From to , a significant decrease of agriculture. Figure 6. Land cover maps of Greater Dhaka district from to Table 2. Land cover change from to of the study area with elevation range. The built up zone is composed of residential land use, commercial land use and industrial land use.

Commercial and industrial land use changes have been observed also with the growth of the area.

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The accelerated industrialization and urbanization following economic reforms and population increases have greatly affected land cover change through the increase of built up areas. As a result, the bare has been converted to both agriculture land use and urban land use. The decrease of vegetation cover was a result of the construction of residential, commercial and industrial zone to promote urban development.

A superimposed image of Digital Elevation Model DEM and land cover map was prepared Figure 7 to identify the residential zone which is located in the low lying area.

Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

Increase in built up areas is due to shrinkage of agriculture land use and mostly transformation into residential and commercial activity. Moreover this area is located into the low lying floodplain zone.

Agricultural land use associated with high elevation range converted into bare land, and at the same time low elevated agricultural land is converted to build up zone to meet the demand for housing to accommodate growth in population. Figure 7. Flooding due to rainfall is also a severe problem for certain city areas that may be inundated for several days, mainly due to drainage congestion. The main reason for the flood was excessive rainfall over the catchments area of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Meghna GBM river basin [37]. Excessive rainfall is reported in Dhaka and Manikganj Sadarfrom to Figure 8 [38].

Monthly annual rainfall records show that the. Figure 8. Yearly average rainfall of Dhaka and Manikganj district from to For example, the rainfall was mm percent higher in compare to its normal condition. Thus, the runoff generated by rainfall could not flow out to the surrounding rivers since the water level of the river stage was also at peak.

The accumulated runoff in low lying areas pushed long inundation and remained stagnant until the water level of the river stage receded.

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During , and flood events, rainfall statistics shows that in June, rainfall was tremendously longer, for other three monsoon months it was terribly larger in event. For example, mm rainfall was recorded for the month of August in which was mm bigger than normal rainfall, meanwhile in it was only mm which was even less than the normal.

In this study, to calculate the return period of floods from yearly precipitation data the Hazen method has been applied [39] , the probability, and the annual precipitations of concern, for the historical statistical data in recent 62 years. This method consisted in assembling the annual precipitations shown in Table 3 below.

This procedure was done using the above equation, for the sample size of 62 years, by assigning ranges in ascending order, the precipitations, and the probabilities of occurrences and return periods for each year. These calculations are shown in Table 3 below. Table 3. Table showing ranges, annual precipitations, probabilities of occurrence and return periods for Dhaka and Manikganj Sadar in the period of Figure 9.

Yearly average precipitation of Dhaka and Manikganj district from to By using Hazen plotting position, the above graph Figure 9 consisted in the plotting of the 62 year data values of precipitations in cm and return periods of occurrences on log-probability graph paper, where precipitation as a dependent variable log annual precipitations in centimeters and return period as a independent variables. Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice.

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2. Hazards, Risk, and Vulnerability

Search within subject: Select Read More. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Search within Show Summary Details Summary and Keywords The flooding of rivers and coastlines is the most frequent and damaging of all natural hazards. Brenden Jongman World Bank. Hessel C. Winsemius Deltares, Delft University of Technology.

Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability
Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability
Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability
Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability
Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability
Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability
Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability Floods in a Megacity: Geospatial Techniques in Assessing Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability

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