These changes also include the dramatic loss of species, and the world's reorganization of biota towards higher homogenization. The information within this volume will enable scientists to develop the technical capabilities and policy tools to mitigate and adapt to undesirable changes.
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Wiley publish their research monographs 52 titles published to date. He is a world-renowned academic with over 30 years teaching and research experience in climate modelling. He has over 30 years experience in the areas of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. He has over 30 years experience looking at environmental problems, specializing in tropical geomorphology, hydrology and urban environmental management. He has led more than international projects in various areas of environmental planning, management and sustainable development and was Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Program UNEP for over 17 years.
He has published widely in the area of environmental ethics. Request permission to reuse content from this site.
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Formed in the early s, the Philadelphia chapter lobbied against the adverse health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons testing. In the s, anti-nuclear activists changed their focus to the dangers of nuclear power plants. In the Philadelphia region, the group Keystone Alliance led the charge to temporarily halt construction of a nuclear power plant in Limerick, Montgomery County.
Joined by the groups Limerick Ecology Action and the Environmental Coalition on Nuclear Power, the action stopped construction until an environmental impact study could be completed. Although one nuclear power plant was constructed in Limerick, another planned plant was discontinued. In the s, following the post- World War II boom of new suburban housing tracts , shopping malls , and highways, local organizations mobilized to protect the environment and remaining open spaces, including local watersheds.
Backed by expert testimony, including soil experts from Rutgers University, the coalition successfully lobbied in Trenton and Washington for the passage of the Pinelands Protection Act.
Types of herbivores
The act restricted development within the complex ecosystem. The Pine Barrens Coalition later the Pinelands Preservation Alliance served as a watchdog to ensure the act was enforced and the Pine Barrens preserved. New Jersey had a history of commitment to preserving open spaces exemplified in the passage of the Green Acres Program in Support for these programs was clear in when voters approved a referendum to use tax revenues to protect natural landscapes for the next thirty years. Throughout the s, people began to realize that hazardous environmental conditions disproportionately affected predominately poor and minority communities.
Efforts to correct these injustices took the form of campaigns for environmental justice, characterized by collaboration between community members and legal advocates, to ensure that environmental regulation would apply to all people regardless of race, national origin, or income. The Public Interest Law Center of Philadelphia, founded in , became involved in many environmental justice cases in the region, including two high-profile cases in Chester, Pennsylvania , and Camden, New Jersey.
Both locales had predominately low-income minority communities and disproportionate numbers of hazardous waste facilities compared to their surrounding counties. In the Pennsylvania Supreme Court forced the plant to close. In Camden, the acre Waterfront South neighborhood alone was home to four junkyards, numerous heavy industrial companies, and a petroleum coke transfer station. Lawrence Cement Company. They won an injunction halting construction of a cement plant that would have caused extensive pollution.
Although the injunction was overturned and the plant eventually built, the case raised awareness of environmental injustices suffered by communities like Camden. Community groups like the Center for Environmental Transformation, founded in , continued to work closely with residents and organizations as agents of environmental justice. The fight for environmental justice continued into the twenty-first century. In , the Public Interest Law Center collaborated with the Eastwick Friends and Neighbors Coalition in Philadelphia to stop development of an apartment complex that would have adversely affected the health and safety of the neighborhood.
The groups successfully convinced the developers to work toward a project with community-based planning. In PennEnvironment, a statewide, citizens environmental advocacy organization, released a study publicizing the disproportionate threat posed to low-income communities in Philadelphia from the pollution and potential derailments of oil trains.
Dangerous derailments in the region in and brought the issue to a forefront. The Greater Philadelphia region typified citizen engagement with diverse environmental issues after World War II employing regional, grassroots, and institutional approaches. The expansion of an environmental consciousness continued into the twenty-first century.
While some groups focused on familiar issues like pollution, green spaces, and waste, the turn of the century also brought new concerns over climate change and hydraulic fracking.
Advocacy groups such as PennEnvironment and the Pennsylvania Environmental Council approached these issues at a statewide level. Others have focused on the grassroots. In , students at Swarthmore College and the University of Pennsylvania were instrumental in starting a national movement towards fossil fuel divestment to combat climate change.
Philadelphia-based Earth Quaker Action Team, founded in , called attention to the devastating effects of mountaintop removal coal mining and the Keystone XL Pipeline. Many organizations active during the earlier environmental movement endured, expanding their goals to face new problems. In the years after World War II, local citizens made great strides toward a cleaner and healthier region.
Alexandra L. Stuart; Pamela A. Matson; Harold A. Mooney Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York: Springer. Ecological Applications.
Michael Reed; C. Richard Tracy Journal of Sustainable Forestry. A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management". Journal of Environmental Management. Land Use Policy. Biological Conservation. The Ecosystem Approach: Learning from Experience. Stakeholder analysis as a tool for conservation area management".
Global Environmental Change. Water Resource Management.
Conservation Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Wiley, London. Adaptive Management. Viewed 8 September Viewed 8 Sep. L Society and Natural Resources. Yale University Press. New Haven. III, Kofinas, G.
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