A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners


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You have to agree the relative pronouns with the gender of the nouns Look at this: This is the child who is playing outside.

Learn Bulgarian in 30 Minutes - ALL the Basics You Need

This is the letter which Im writing. The man is beautiful. The woman is beautiful. The child is beautiful. In the dictionaries the adjectives are given in their masculine forms. But when the adjective ends in plus other consonant, the is dropped. Exercise B: Translate these sentences into Bulgarian: 1 He is seeing his wife. She is seeing Anton who is going into a shop. The shop is big.

She is going into it too: Marian: Hello, Anton. What are you doing here? Anton: Hello, Maria. I'm going shopping. I need some bread. The shopkeeper is going and bringing the bread to Anton. The shopkeeper: The bread today is very delicious. Anton is taking it and putting it into the bag. Anton: How much does the bread cost? The shopkeeper answers: - 75 stotinki. Anton is gives them to the shopkeeper and together with Maria goes out of the shop.

Solution of Exercise B: 1. In five lessons we'll try to teach you the basics of the Russian language. Russian is a major language in the world, it has many speakers. Most speakers are of course located in Russia. But also former Soviet countries have many Russian speakers. Russian is a Slavic language. Verbs Adjectives Negation and questions Vocabulary Exercises. Russian is not written in our Latin alphabet but it uses the Cyrillic alphabet.

The Cyrillic alphabet is, like our Latin alphabet, a descendant of the Greek alphabet. But Cyrillic has some more characters, the Russian Cyrillic alphabet contains 33 letters in total. All of those will be discussed in this lesson. Russian is not the only language that uses the Cyrillic alphabet. Thus learning it might come in handy. Let's begin by just writing down the entire Cyrillic alphabet. Equivalence as a in "father" as b in "big" as v in "virgin" as g in "great" as d in "doctor". In colloquial language though, this may ] sound like a very long "sh" sound It's like a moan in the throat and is therefore in the throat with slightly backward curled tongue.

So you'll have to memorize where to put it. Stress is especially important when it comes to the letter "" , because stress determines it's pronunciation. Therefore in this course we will put an apostrophe ' after the vowel that has to be stressed. Note that is always stressed. Example: ' This concludes the first chapter, you might have to read over it several times to get to know the characters. The following exercises will help you practice your knowledge of Cyrillic:.

Lesson 2: , e Introductions Unlike most Indo-European languages, the Russian language uses no verb "to be". Moreover, the Russian language doesn't have articles either, so the words "the, a" and "an" do not exist in Russian, which makes Russian kind of a Tarzan language at first sight. For example, we say "I am a student" whereas Russians would simply say I student. Let's take a look at some introductions in Russian, which will make you familiar with the words for I, you, he, she etc I am Ivan and I am a student.

You are Ivan and you are a student. He is Ivan and he is a student. She is Ivanova and she is a student. We are Ivan and Pyotr and we are students. You are Ivan and Pyotr and you are students. They are Ivan and Pyotr and they are students. The above example showed you all so-called personal pronouns.

You now know how to say "I" and "We", etc.. You have also learned the word for "and", which is of course "". You have also learned the word for "student", which becomes "'" in it's feminine form and "'" in it's plural form. Russian is not an easy language, although you might find it easy that there are no words such as "the, a" and "to be". The Russian language has noun gender and cases. This may not say much to you yet, so we will look into this more.

Noun Gender To explain the concept of noun-gender we'll first have to explain what a noun is, if you didn't already know. A noun is a word that represents an object a person or an abstract something, nouns can be preceded in English by the word "the". In most other languages, but not in English, a noun has a certain gender. So you're telling me a noun can be a boy or a girl? A noun has a certain gender, in Russian and many other Germanic languages there are three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Every noun note that this gender concept only applies to nouns has one of these three genders.

How to determine what gender is very difficult sometimes, but most grammar rules are dependent of the gender of the noun, so you'll have to learn the gender of each noun. From now on, we will mention the gender of a noun when we discuss one, we use the abbreviations "m" for masculine, "f" for feminine and "n" for neuter.

Pointing at Possession We will now discuss two important parts of Russian grammar, noun-gender plays a very important role here, as with most other grammar rules as well. We have already learned to say things like "He is a student". Now we will take a look at how to point at things or people, by saying: "This is a student" or "That is a student". Noun gender will get involved now and we will also see a separating in this and that: "" will be used for "this" while "" will be used for "that".

And they all have to agree with the noun in gender and number. The following example will explain this: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '. Possession Now we will discuss possession. Like in any languages, it is also possible in Russian to say things like: "My car", "Your book", etc Take a look at the following example: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '. So if the noun is masculine you use ", , " or "", if the noun is feminine you use "', ', " or "" and if it's neuter you use ", , " or "". We haven't discussed the plural form yet, that will come in a later lesson. There is only one more thing we need to discuss.

We haven't yet discussed the translation for the possessive adjectives "his", "her" and "their". But you are fortunate, because these three words don't act like the ones we just mentioned. They don't have to agree with the noun in gender, so you just use one form for all genders. The following example will demonstrate this: ' ' ' This is his book f ' ' This is her book f ' ' This is their book f ' ' ' This is his car m ' ' This is her window n ' This is their table m This concludes the second lesson. Lesson 3: Plurality Plurality You have already seen nouns in their singular form, but it's of course also possible to put Russian nouns in a plural form.

Noun gender plays an important role here, because the gender of the noun determines what suffix to add to make the noun plural. The modification of nouns by adding such 'suffixes' are called commonly called 'reflections', the Russian language contains a huge number of these inflections, because a noun will also have a different ending depending on the case it's in.

But more about that later. Let us first start by showing how to make a noun plural. We will give you the following table, which will also help you spot gender of nouns by looking at their ending. The endings of the noun have been separated from it's root word by a hyphen -. Note that this is only for clarity's sake. The hyphen is not written normally and it just forms one word.

If you have a word and you want to know how to make it plural, then you'll first have to know what gender the word is in. Usually it's ending will give away it's gender. You have seen that the masculine gender has three typical endings, a consonant, a "" and a "". But as you see, the feminine gender also has a group ending in "", so with many words you will still have to memorize gender yourself, there are also many irregularities. Now we know how to form plural we can expand our knowledge from the previous lesson.

Now we will discuss the plural form of this. First of all, when you want to say "these are students" then you can just say " '", so there's no special thing their yet. But when you want to say "these students" then we will need a new word declension of " ", for all plural nouns so fortunately in all genders we use "' ", the plural of "" would be "". It's important to pay much attention to all those endings, because Russian is full of them! Now we will take a look at our possessive adjectives. They also have one plural form for all genders. Let's look at the following example: ' '' My wife f ' '' My wives ' '' Your window n ' '' Your windows n ' Our table m ' '' Our tables Also pay attention to the way the stress of a noun can change when it becomes plural.

Being polite. We now first have to teach you how to be polite in Russian. In Russian and most other languages, but not in English, there exists a certain polite form of "you". In Russian they use "" instead of "" in formal speech. So "" means both "you-all" as well as "you" in a more polite form. Take a look at the following sample sentences: '. You are a student informal, spoken to a friend You are a student formal, spoken from a teacher to a new student for ' example ' You are students plural both formal and informal When addressing strangers, you'll always want to use "".

To have As you already saw, the Russians do not use a verb for "to be". Likewise, they don't use a verb for "to have". Whereas we say, for example, "I have a table", the Russians say "With me - is a - table". Or in Russian: " ' ". The word "" is a preposition, followed by the person in genitive case. We will for. This is especially the case in questions and answers but it can also occur elsewhere. Take a look at the following question-answer pair. Do we have a table? We have one. In the next lesson, we will make you get acquainted with the concept of cases.

Lesson 4: Cases Cases Cases are a very difficult grammatical matter. It is possible that you have never heard of cases and that you have never dealt with them before. That's why we will try to explain them from start. If you have ever studied another language that has cases, such as Latin or German, then you will probably no how to handle them and what they are, which will give you a head-start on Russian. Several languages make use of so-called cases. In English cases are not used and therefore most people won't know what cases are. But in many other languages, such as German and Russian there are cases.

Unfortunately cases make a language a lot more difficult to learn, but they do make a grammar more elegant. What exactly is a case? A case is a certain 'mode' a word appears in, nouns, pronouns, articles and adjectives usually get a special ending reflections depending on in what case they are in. Cases appear at a certain place in the sentence or after certain prepositions or verbs. In Russian there are six cases, in German there are four. But you most likely need further explanation. Let's use an example to get to know cases. Look at the following sentences: "My mother is in the kitchen" "It's my mother's birthday" "I give my mother a present" "He sees my mother" These four sample sentences show the first four cases using the words "my mother".

The first case would be Nominative case, the case we will deal with in this chapter, the other will be taught later on. But still, you don't know what a case is so let's go on with it. Nominative case is all about subjects. The other three sample sentences are different. Although they all have the words "my mother", it appears in a different position each time. In the 2nd sentence "my mother" is used possessively this is called Genitive case, or 2nd case.

So in languages such as German and Russian, "my mother" has to be adapted so it can be used as Genitive, this is usually done by applying different endings to the noun reflections. Each case has it's own endings, and those endings are also gender dependent. Masculine nouns usually have a different ending in Genitive case and any case than feminine nouns. It is a target. This is called Dative case, or 3rd case. More about this case in a moment. You know that cases occur when words appear on a certain place in the sentence, but besides that, cases can also occur after certain prepositions and sometimes even after certain verbs.

So certain prepositions can, for example, always cause an Accusative case. The words the preposition applies to will then have to agree with that case and they should get the appropriate ending. You should now understand what a case is. It is a certain position in the sentence where a word appears and that word has to have a proper ending in order to be correctly used at that position in the sentence. Usually cases also replace prepositions. The sentence: "I give my mother a present" for example, by using "my mother" on that position and with a certain reflection in Russian, one knows that you give a present TO your mother, but it's not necessary to use the preposition.

Also do note that by saying that "a word has to have a proper ending in order to be used at a certain position in a sentence", I refer to nouns and adjectives. Usually they are all case dependent AND gender- and number dependent. The case we have mostly used now is the nominative case. The nouns where the subject of the sentence, but now we will take a look at accusative case which we have already used a bit, without you realizing it Accusative Case. Accusative case is all about the "direct object".

The direct object is a group of words although it can also be one word that receive the action of the main verb carried out by the subject. The answer to the question will then me the direct object: the object of the action. Some examples: "I see the dog", "who do I see?

You can already guess where in a sentence words should be adapted to Accusative Case: when they are the direct object. That's right. When a noun, adjective, article or some pronouns appear as a direct object you should give the words the proper ending to make them suitable for Accusative case. What happens in the accusative case? You are fortunate because some masculine and neuter nouns usually don't change in the accusative case, so you can often just use the same word as in the nominative case there which is the word as you've learned it, nomnitive case is always the default case. Feminine singular words, however, do change in the accusative case.

So when a feminine word is a direct object, you will have to modify it's ending so it reflects the correct case. In order to demonstrate this we say that "I see" is " '" in Russian. More about verbs will be learned in the next lesson, so just assume this as a fact for now. Take a look at the following example: I see a book What do I see? Note that there are many verbs which can take an accusative case, all those verbs transitive verbs have an effect on something, something is the object of the action.

Russian has six cases and three genders, which makes the amount of reflections huge. This is the most difficult task in learning Russian. But it is possible, so don't give up! Note that " " etc You just use normal nominative case there. We have discussed a lot of theoretical stuff in this lesson, so we will end this lesson now. Lesson 5: Verbs and more! Verbs Until now, we have not seen a single verb, mainly because "to be" and "to have" are not expressed using verbs in Russian. In this lesson we are going to change that because Russian, of course does have many verbs.

Russian verbs are conjugated according to two groups. The stem of the verb can be obtained by dropping -. They follow the same pattern. Now we will take a look at the second group of verbs. There are even some verbs in - which follow this pattern, so it is important to learn which each verb whether it's conjugated according to group one, group two, or whether it's irregular. Adjectives We haven't spoken about adjectives yet. In case you don't know what an adjective is, I'll give you a short explanation.

An adjective is a word that describes a property of a noun, so it tells something about the noun. For example, look at the following sentence-part: the old woman.


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Here the adjective is ""old" because it tells something about the noun "woman" Unfortunately adjectives are also quite hard in Russian because they have a lot of different endings. They have. There are actually three groups of adjectives, all agreeing with the noun in a slightly different way. We have the unstressed adjectives ending in - or - , which have unstressed endings and stressed stems, and we have the stress adjectives, which have a stressed ending -' and an unstressed stem.

And then there are some 40 soft-adjectives, which generally end in -. Also note that Russian adjectives are usually placed before the noun, like in English, though word order can be flexible too. Adjectives as shown in the dictionary and in courses are always in their nomnitive singular masculine form.

In this course we will not go into adjectives much further Negation and questions It is of course in Russian quite possible to say "no". The Russians say, as you probably already know: "" whereas they say "" as "yes". When we want to make a sentence negative, then Russians simply add the word "" before the verb if there is a verb. Take a look at the following sample which will also demonstrate how to ask question: ' ' This is a book ' ' This is not a book ' '?

Is this a book? Do I speak Russian? You can see the simplicity of negation and of asking questions in Russian here! There are also more ways to ask question using the following interrogative pronouns: '? What do we know? Who knows? Who speaks? Where do you work? How does he know? When does she work? Solution of Exercise B: 1 ' 2 ' 3 ' 4 '? Entry ticket ticket exchange, stock market turquoise biscuit Battle, Fight beat beaten beefsteak, steak.

Would , search , desire be; come; go to be, exist visit, resort, call on ex, onetime fast, rapid, quick mode of life To be, be good, something positive , would you be so good as to God bless you budget budgetary bulletin, report Bulletin ,voting, ballot paper bulletin; statement bureau; office in, into; at; for, to. Bicycle Ventilation cord, rope Believe , trust vermicelli right, correctly. To the left to the left Sway, Influence influence Together, in conjunction simultaneously ; at the same time Instead of first, at first Beyond, out of To bring. It is possible , maybe , possibly Possibly, maybe, perhaps Opportunity, possibility protest, object, rejoin, remonstrate.

Reception, engagement, greeting meet, get together, find, see counter, against, adverse All, any, anyone, each, every, any Again, repeatedly. Exile, send, sling dry up, become dry dry, wipe dry , efface Wash, delete. Give, hand. Double, duplicate Courtyard, yard janitor; wiper; yardman, door-keeper Double, twofold bilateral, bipartite two-room Two-place , two-seated. Debit, discharge, delivery, capacity girl, female child, lass; Miss; baby, sissy girl, lass, maiden, adolescent, lady grandfather.

Detail, part, portion, share; section, detailed, itemized; detail, particular; minute children, kids; babies; issue. Lank, Long, prolonged long, prolonged, protracted last, continue; endure; go on extend, lengthen, prolong, spread for that daytime In the afternoon, during the day Floor , bottom to, unto; until; before; afore, above; ere; in so far as to her, up to her add, supplement; throw in; tack, append; subjoin add ; append ; subjoin come by, obtain, achieve, acquire, attain, reach. The power of attorney Trust To entrust trust, confide; believe, credit; accredit, certify.

Part, piece, part house, home at home, at one's residence domestic, home, house. Authentic, reliable worthy sights pl. Fatty, lardy inhabitant Habitation, residence residence Live, be alive Magazine, journal journalist Placet , For behind By border Distance, For, onto Before, beforehand During , across, through Something, by, by the side of, beside, near, close to, next to Except, except for To block To take away, take drive in, hammer in Beforehand, preliminary, timely, opportune, apropos To lose the way delude oneself; err, mistake, misbelieve, mislead, delude, Delusion, fallacy illness, disease, sickness Sicken, fall ill, sicken, catch a desease be taken ill, get sick, come down, illness, disease be taken ill, get sick, something, somewhat fence; paling, picket fence; palisade, railing.

The task , errand, task task detain lay over; overstay To touch , touch back, behind, after; rear, tail By back, aback, backward. To reflect , muse, be lost in thought burn up, light, kindle Lighter, lighter, To light, burn, singe, parch, scorch Interest, material drop in, stop by; turn in, visit, resort, call on.

The customer To order, book, order, charter end, finish, conclude sundown, sunset; afterglow glue, join with glue, glue, paste To stick, stick Agreement, conclude Deduction, imprisonment, conclusion conclude Law, principle lawful regularity law-governed To finish Fasten, infix To close, closed closed, shut; enclosed Covered, shut up, close buy in, purchase To light, burn up, light To smoke light hall gulf pledge slow, retard. To bring, thing, take, carry To bring, record, bring in, carry in Occupation, Employment Busy, full To engage, loan west.

Spares Comma, Point To earn , earn, gain, get, score, win win, gain, earn Earnings, gain, lucre, profit, returns, pay, salary enregister; incorporate book, enter, notify, score, register rusty, oxidized, rust-eaten foreign; exterior , strange, alien Charge, arm, load. To force, constrain, compel, coerce, oblige To find hook up Next, Then, after stop up , shut up But Delivery, expense. Spend, resources effort, exertion; trouble, labor, push; struggle; pull, stretch, stress , apply, use, utilize, make use of Means, spend, expend, exhaust, exhaust Spend, effort, lay, place, rest, put, set Hardship, difficulty obstruct To come , deflect Why , What for To enlist sew, stitch up, suture Behalf, Guard To declare The application , claim, requiring , demand Document, application request, adjuration, appeal, invocation, suit To call , nominate invite, ask, bid, To call ring, clang, tinkle, bell telephone, phone; call on the phone, ring s.

Greens , To food earthquake earth; land; ground, dirt, soil; territory; floor; sod; deck strawberry mirror, looking glass, reflection; glass. To get acquainted , introduce Acquaintance , introduction , knowledge Familiar, Known, well-known, familiar Familiar, known , acquaintance Denominator Famous , celebrated knowing Aware , Knowing know, be acquainted with, be familiar with Meaning , Value Considerable, appreciable mean, signify gold.

Apology, Apology excuse, justify To apologize, excuse Bend, twist make, produce, devise, manufacture To make , fabricate Fabrication, Manufacturing Made, hand-made From apart , Have issued product Costs, expense all along of, because, from behind, beyond for the sake of; for; by way of heal, cure Heal , cure make a complete recovery , cure Surplus, excess Excessively, Is unnecessary ray, radiate, beam Radiation, eradiation, emanation Favourite Change, reverse Alter, modify, To change Gauge, measure Wrinkled, crush badly, battered, crumpled wear, lose quality gradually, wear down, abrade, scrub, scour, rub out.

Sometimes, occasionally Foreigner, foreigner Foreign, extraneous Institute, institute. Interestingly Interesting interest, concern interpret intuition Infarct Information, communicatory Information search, seek, hunt for, look for; investigate, examine To exclude , exclude Excluding Exception, Sincere, honest artificial art Execution Performer, The executor , executor Perform, accomplish, To execute Utilization, Use, application apply, employ, exploit, use, make use of, employ, To use To spoil Rectify, To correct , reclaim correct, set right, retrieve True.

Result, Gathering, The tax all, altogether, everything, a total of, commonly, generally, universally Them, their, at, in; by; over; under , to, toward; towards, near; unto, into; by; for; against, At Time, toward. The cabinet , cabinet inverted commas, quotation marks, quotation marks, inverted commas Shot, sequence each, every, any, Everyone Seeming, apparent To seem , look, appear, seem how, what how much, As far as exactly anyhow; somehow or other like Since , eversince as such cocoa how, however; whence; how on earth?

Kilometer, kilometre sprat, small edible fish cinema To throw, cast, throw Kiosk, cabin Boil, boiling. Which, who, that coffee coffee pot, pot Margin, margin Extremely, supremely Extreme Faucet, cinnamon fountain Handsome, Beautiful color, dye; paint; stain paint; tint, color; dye; stain; flush, suffusion, Fight Red, rouge, red momentary, brief; transitional, fleeting Cream fortress, bastion, citadel; fastness, firmness; hardiness, stoutness Chair, Armchair cry, shout, bawl, call, scream, vociferation, yell. Skis my treasure Anyone, each, every in any case, anyway, in any event The people , folk.

Triviality, Money Trifle, Triviality at a glimpse , hastily, hurriedly, quickly, swiftly, in a hurry, hurriedly, cursorily The memoirs Less, little However, nevertheless, nonetheless Less , It is less Minority, minority lesser The menu , Sheet me To change. Ministry, government department Minister, secretary of state Minus, sign for subtraction or negative value - Minute. Peaceful, Peace World outlook , worldview World, cosmic mystery play, mystery, mystery, arcanum, enigma invention, fable, fabrication, fiction The baby, infant, baby Minor, time junior, younger To me , me Mind, Opinion most; much, a great deal; many many Multiple, Repeated multifarious suspension points dear; greatly respected numerous Mobile fashion, mode, style, vogue.

Young Milk condensed milk, evaporated milk, armored cow hammer Milky, dairy To be silent , be silent, keep silence, keep still Instant, The moment momentary; split second, very short period of time. Power gloom, murk; obscurity, darkness; opaque marble The husband, man, mate, goodman, spouse. Masculine, male The man, male, he Museum. Likely, Probably Upward, aloft , overhead Shed, roof, housetop, shed Deluge, deluge Evermore, forever Towards, against, opposite custom, habit, use, wont, skill Demonstrative, clear, synoptic Reward, The award, The premium burden, load, charge, lade, weight, load up.

Drink, beverage, To fill , fill To remind, remind To direct , address, direct, superscribe way, direction, course To the right. Isn't, Not The sky Small, slight Negligence, negligence The bride, fiancee, bride despite, inspite of, although, notwithstanding, nevertheless, none the less; Tasteless, savourless, insipid, unpalatable impossible neurosis neuropathist disadvantageous impossible; impracticable There is no place Newly, Recently Near, near, not far not without reason Lapsed, unreal, inofficious, fantastic weekly Week bad, of poor quality Is dissatisfied Not for long impermissible, forbidden; inadmissible; intolerable.

Some Inopportunely It is impossible taken It is impossible Immediately, forthwith It is a little, little. Jumpy, Nervous, nervous, agitated, tense, anxious, apprehensive Rustproof, non-corrosive, incorrodible, stainless, rustfree, rust-proof. Despite, In spite of no matter what Undoubtedly, undoubtedly carry, bear; bring, carry with; waft, carry in the air No , denial, negation No, not Inaccurate, inexact Inconvenient, awkward Something, object, thing, something Nor, not a, never a Anywhere,.

Novelty news; item, news story; novelty new, novel; recent, fresh; original, innovative; modern, advanced. To like must Well shade, nuance, hue, touch, tincture, hint. Onto , on Chair, found, be based; lean; recline, rest; bear Clod, than Both go by To consider Both Dinner To have dinner prandial, pertaining to dinner , dinner, lunch. Circumvent, Movement equipment, supplies, necessary items, tools or other objects for completing a task; furnishings, furniture. Shape, guise Sample, pattern Education, Formation Back give heed to, pay attention inspect, examine; explore; survey service, attendance, attendance situation, condition; context, background; furnishings, furniture , furniture, furnishings pl.

Circumstance, auspice Discuss, To discuss discuss, debate; consider, think about carefully; confer, consult with. Discussion, consideration shoes, footgear, anything worn on the feet, covering for the feet instruct, teach; discipline, train; breed, nurture; ground; profess To be trained Training To train, educate brace; enclasp, enfold; entwine; cope; go round Hostel, dorm dorm, Hostel. Custom, habit; usage Usual Duty Necessarily Compulsory, Obligatory obligation, duty responsibility vegetable contents; table of contents look back kitchen garden, market garden.

Lake Bespeak, mark, note , mean, denote To appear salute, hello; holler, call; speak, summon Window chains, shackels, fetters; irons about, next to; around, approximately; beside, near, by; next; at About, Near, approximately end, termination; ending, conclusion, finish, completion; conclusion ending, inflexion, termination final, at the end, last, ultimate; decisive; conclusive, definitive finish but small window booking-office outskirts, edge of a city; edge, periphery.

Dangerous To outstrip description, descriptive statement Payment reciprocate honor; solve pay, defray, remunerate lateness, tardiness. To pay pay tribe, clan, people; group; race, heritage nephew, son of one's brother or sister niece, daughter of one's brother or sister film, roll-film stove, cooker; slab; flag stone , Kitchen slab, plate fruit. Saying Weather frontier guard boundary, borderline; conterminous, bordering on; frontier Under against, athwart, contra.

Detail In-depth copy, emulate; imitate, mimic; portray The girlfriend confirm, verify; approve, endorse; justify, warrant; support, sustain confirm, verify; approve, endorse; justify, warrant; support, sustain Corroboration, Acknowledgement bethink, think over; consider, see about pillow, soft cushion, pad Approaching, pertinent accent, emphasize, stress, underline, underscore, dash pillow; box; chock; bearing. How are you Elderly The day before yesterday To allow, enable To call telephone, phone; call on the phone, ring s.

Midday, noon It is useful Useful, wholesome Polyclinic Shelf authority, power; proxy; competency; commission Completely, fully Completeness, thickness Complete, rotund Half, moiety Towel one and a half recipient. To receive To receive, receive avail, advantage, behoof, benefit To use To place Hitch, impediment prevent, hinder, stop, deter, stymie, thwart. To help in my opinion, to my mind, to my thinking, in my eyes help, assist, hand help, aid, assistance; relief; facilitation, promotion gradually, little by little.

Ceiling , ,. Forestall, To warn warn, notify in advance Before Former disdain Advantage Perfect, fine Cease, To stop stop, quit; finish, end The teacher, instructor teach; profess To interrupt. At on occasion, as occasion offers herewith To add To arrive Coming, arrival Hi attract, magnetize; allure, charm; invite; engage; appeal; fetch; pull Attract, To involve To get used. The prescription, recipe River Speech To decide solve decisive The decision.

Backpack row row, horizontal line, next; against With, Together permit, license; written permission, The sanctions with, from; of, coming from savannah, plain covered with coarse grasses and characterized by seasonal rainfall Orchard, Garden kindergarten To sit carry up, take up, bring up Salad lard Interior, saloon Itself, self of course The plane, aircraft The self-teacher Most, superlative quotha all intents and purposes.

The collection Market, sale, Sales Weld, cook Information take note; consider fresh, new, young Fresh, crisp. Property, feature, characteristic Tie, band, bond, colligate, connect cord, lace, tie telephone communication Communications To hand over, transfer, deliver, yield control of give, deliver, get by lease; surrender; delivery change, odd money make; pull transaction cost price, net cost. At the left Hence Following, posterior Drain, plum Cream, cream Too The dictionary, lexicon Word By word Complexity, sophistication complex, intricate; complicated, difficult; sophisticated, seasoned To break The employee, servant Occasion, Case Incidentally, accidentally, Casually.

Absolutely The consent, assent, concord To agree According, Agrees consensual, based on mutual agreement agreement Assistance, promotion contents, inside Deplore, To regret. To inform, tell building, edifice, structure, Building equipment, frame, outfit To correspond meet , conform respective Parity ratio accompany Kind variety The neighbour Neighboring, Next sosis Pine composition Constitute, To make To count creation hundred. Customs duty, customs, tariff. Body, figure veal, meat of a calf By that all the better, so much the better nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, all the same Theme Subjects.

Representative, typical standard, typical; exemplary edition; printing; circulation Hyphen Silent, quiet Silently cloth, fabric, material that commodity, goods, merchandise; shipment Then i Toilet, closet, Clothes, garb Toilet, closet Tuberculosis There, thither The tunnel Impasse, stymie Blunt, dull touring, tourism The tourist here; near at hand; there ready at hand, ready to hand, ready to hands, right You pumpkin Tube tulip prison, jail Onerous, burdensome, onerous; painful; depressing Intractable, Heavy. On convincing To convince Belief, Sight, looking To clean remove , To clean Cleaning, purging char, scrubwoman; housemaid To clean remove , transpose, displace To liquidate loss; damage; lesion; sacrifice; waste detrimental Dear Homage, Respect carry away, take away; kidnap increase, augment, stretch, enlarge, magnify, add Confidently.

To give To surprise, astonish Surprise, wonder surprised Convenient To satisfy, suffice satisfy, gratify; fulfil, pleasure, content; answer Pleasure To leave already Supper. To settle Street street improve, better; perfect, refine; develop To smile Smile Mind, brain skill relevant. To use Management, controlling, running Manipulate, tutor, govern Drive, steer, take The manager Hurricane urn level, standard Lesson. Service render a service, serve, render, accommodate Hear, to hear discretion To fall asleep accomplish Success wish good speed, more power to your elbow Successful Weariness, fatigue Tired install, fit , fix up; Oral, verbal To arrange oyster To concede furniture, fitments, household belongings approve, confirm, establish, homologate, tedious To sink ,drown, strangle sink, founder, plunge drowned man Morning Morning, morn Morning, morrow Iron Ear tend, attend, fend, look after, provide for; To leave participation Sharing participation.

Actual, factual factor, cause Faculty phony Surname veneer headlight, headlamp Pharmaceutical porcelain mincemeat, forcemeat, ground meat Stuffed, filled. To photograph film, thin flexible material coated with light sensitive emulsion Photography Phrase wall painting, fresco, mural Fruit fruit, greengrocery Fruit juice, crush foundation, basement; bottom function; keep function Case laches paste.

Characteristic Characteristic To praise, praise coniferous bread Corn bread bakery, company which bakes food for. Well, okay To want, want Though, albeit, although Temple To store keep snore back; ridge; edge, Mountains chronic Crystal To grow thin The artist, artist worse at worst at worst Worse persimmon, type of fruit To blossom, blow Colour colored flower. By the purpose cement The price Value valuable The centre Centralized, centralize Central Circuit, chain Church Cycle cistern, tank; oil car; tanker quotation, citation; excerption figure, number; character Digital Chicken tea Kettle, Teapot Hour Particle, bit Partial private personal, individual; private Frequently Part, portion Best part timekeeper, timepiece cup To thicket.

Trace, wake Too cherry rough copy, draft copy Black brown tommy spadework, unskilled labor stale; hard, callous. Susceptibility, perceive, To feel Wonderful Another's Closet, cupboard advertence, attention; delicateness Hardly Hardly, It is a little Hardly, alliance just a little Nonsense, nonsense, Bosh Template, gauge Step, tread at every step step, pace, take regular steps; stride, tread frolic, prank, mischievous behavior Champignon shampoo. Playful, jocular sorrel, dock have mercy on, spare bounty Lavish, lavish The pup , puppy.

Equivalent equivalent, reciprocal Examination examine Specimen, exemplar exotics exotic, foreign; unusual Equipment Economy, economics economic; economical, saving The screen excursionist excursion, tour, trip; hike guide Experiment Export To export The express train, express urgent; emergency; special; extra Elegant Electrical, electric Electricity Electronic hot-plate Element Elementary, rudimentary emblem, symbol, representation, insignia emotion Energetic, Vigorous epoch standard, model, criterion; reference Skirt, petticoat The south. First need phrases.

Thank you. Thank you very much. You're welcome. It's my pleasure. Here you are. I see. I don't understand. I'm sorry, I didn't catch you. All right. That's all right. How far is it to the town? How many? How long? Whom should I ask? After you. I'm lost. I don't speak Spanish. Please speak English. Do you speak English? How do you say it in Spanish? Where is the nearest hotel? Where is the bathroom?

Does someone there speak English? Who speaks English? Good morning. How are you doing? How are you getting along? How is it going? What's up? It's nice to meet you. I'm glad to see you again. What's new? Long time no see. I am pleased to do so. Saying goodbye Goodbye.

Reason 2: Korean grammar is actually very simple and straightforward

Good night. See you later. Take care of yourself. Please give my kind regards to your father. Please give my kind regards to your mother. I'm looking forward to seeing you again. This is my business card. Invitation I would like to meet you in the lobby. Will you be free tomorrow? Do you want to come with me? What are your plans for today? Would you like to go for a walk? Let me be your guide. Won't you go shopping with me?

Let's go swimming. Would you care for something to eat? May I offer you a drink? How about a drink? Make yourself at home. That sounds good. I'd love to. I don't mind. No way! Introductions My name is What's your name? Who are you with? I am on my own. I am with my wife. I am with my father. I am with my mother.

I am with my family. May I introduce you to my wife? May I introduce you to my son? May I introduce you to my daughter? What city? I am from the USA. Are you married? I am married. Do you have children? What do you do for a living? I am a student. I am on vacation. I'll stay here for 1 day.

I am leaving tomorrow. I am leaving on Monday. Have you ever been to the USA? You have wonderful taste in clothes. That's funny. Well done! That's great! You look nice! What a nice place. Gratitude Thank you for your compliment. I enjoyed myself today, thank you. That's very kind of you.

You're very generous. I'm really grateful to you. I'm very much obliged to you.

Bulgarian for Foreigners

Much obliged. Apologies Sorry. Excuse me a moment. Just a moment please. That's my fault. It was careless of me. I didn't mean that. Next time I'll get it right. Forgive me for being late.

10 Reasons Why The Korean Language Being Difficult Isn’t True

I am sorry to have kept you waiting. Am I disturbing you? May I bother you for a moment? Requests I beg your pardon. Will you do me a favor? Could you please help me? Can you give me a hand? Would you assist me? Will you help me with this problem? What did you say? Say that once more please. Please speak more slowly. Please write it here. What's this? What does this mean?

Do you understand? Please hurry up. Come with me! Can you lend me a dime? May I take a look at it? Can I borrow your pen? May I have your address? Can you drop me off downtown? Feelings You are right. I'm not sure. I don't think so. I'm afraid not. That's incredible. How beautiful! That's wonderful!

I'm afraid you're mistaken. I feel blue. It's disgusting. You make me sick. Calm down, everything will be OK. Don't be nervous. Take your time. Don't pay attention to what he said. Cool it! Chill out! Cheer up! What a pity! What a surprise! You must be kidding!

Oh dear, what a mess! What a fool! That's enough! Oh my God! My goodness! Of course! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy anniversary! I wish you many years of happiness. Heartiest congratulations. Best wishes. I hope you'll get better soon. Have a nice trip! Have a good time! Good luck! Let's meet again! God bless you! Bon appetite! Time What time is it? What time do you have? At what time? At eleven o'clock. Till what time? The shops are open till two o'clock.

The shops are closed after two p. It is one o'clock. It is a quarter to one. It is a quarter past one. It is five minutes to one. It is five minutes past one. It is half past two. Let's meet at ten a. It is early. It's on time. Is it late? It is noon. How long will it take? What time is your flight? I am leaving in the morning. What day is today? Today is Monday. Useful words minute hour night day week today yesterday tomorrow tomorrow morning one o'clock two o'clock three o'clock four o'clock five o'clock six o'clock seven o'clock eight o'clock nine o'clock ten o'clock eleven o'clock twelve o'clock a.

The weather today is good. Today it's hot. Ian D. Parrots can be taught words, computers can be programmed to manage grammar. If we are honest neither of them speak English. There is so much more than learning words and grammar to any language. Why choose Ian D. He has, using his own methods given me control of my English, pronunciation and improved greatly my sentence construction.

I would recommend Ian to anyone wishing to take English lessons, whilst his style is different, it is effective. May 15, Bryan K. English Teacher Hello, how are you?? During this incredible journey teaching the world language, I had the opportunity to work for 3 years in renowned schools like Rockfeller and InFlux, and now I continue to give private tutoring specifically tailored for each student.

Why choose Bryan K. He adjusts his lessons to meet your expectations. The courses are great and it is really pleasant to learn English with him we are far from the boring lessons in school You can talk about everything and it's a really interesting guy. So, I recommend this teacher without any hesitation. April 26, Kasey W. Australia Tutor has a verified ID. Why choose Kasey W. She is so nice. She corrects the mistakes in the class and prepares a report after the class. It's appreciated for her help. July 13, Sue B. Doctorate candidate with 8 years of Language Teaching experience I'm a native English speaker and I have been integrating different methods into the language teaching process since the first day of my career as a teacher.

I came to the realization that each student is unique and I have to prioritize their needs in the learning process. Why choose Sue B.

Slightly more than one month ago my level was just about 5 - 5. Sue gave me deep understanding of my weaknesses and about ways to improve my skills so in exam I wrote two essays in just 40 minutes. I strongly recommended Sue, because she became also my friend and she is perfect and incredible teacher, great motivator that have an individual approach. August 29, Irene K. Certified English tutor with 8 years of experience.

Teach Russian and Ukrainian. Hi there! I enjoy teaching English, Russian and Ukrainian, and nothing brings me more joy than seeing the progress my students make everyday. My lessons are full of exciting discussions and debates. I consider learning English through speaking the language to be the fastest way to master it. Carlos M.

Enhancing Business skills for serious long term adult committed professionals Native from California with over 6 years of expertise working with professionals in an array of areas, focused for the most part on intermediate to advanced leveled students, from university scholars and professors, to various business professionals at various firms as clients such as Merck, Ratiopharm Commerzbank, Amazon, Carl Zeiss, Daimler, and various startups.

Why choose Carlos M. He is very profesisonal, has a lot of experience working with professionals on helping them improve theire language skills. He has helped me a lot to improve my conversational skills, to prepare to interviews, and to expand my vocabulary. March 29, Colin M. Therefore my lessons are bespoke for each student. Why choose Colin M. He loves what he does. You can see the true passion in him. Apart from it, he can give answers to questions to which other tutors couldn't.

Besides, I am convinced that he knows English much better than other native speakers and he's going to help me to be well prepared for the IELTS exam. He knows it inside out. I can sleep calmly knowing that he's my teacher and I can rely on him. November 15, Simona B. I was born in United States of America and I have lived there for more than 16 years. I have been working as an online tutor for more than 4 years and I'm still working for other companies too. Why choose Simona B. April 05, Hazel E. I am a language professor in my country and I've been an English Online Teacher since I am flexible to different techniques in teaching which is personalized depending on the student's age, level and ability.

Why choose Hazel E. You can choose almost any topic for conversation and Hazel will be able to hold a conversation at a level that you can understand easily. Also she will help you to correct your grammatical mistakes and pronunciation. The classes take place in friendly and relaxed atmosphere. I'm very pleased with the past classes with Hazel. September 04, Steven A. Business English teacher Good day to you and thanks for viewing my profile. As you can see from the reviews from former, and current students, I can really help you improve your English!

Let me explain some of those ways: Perfecting your accent when you speak English, so that people can understand you better. Why choose Steven A. I find the lessons extremely pleasant and helpful. He has a sense to recognize my weaknesses and to improve them efficiently. I find the lessons very well structured and all the written and spoken aspects are dealt systematically.

We talk about topical issues, but also about everyday topics, which complements my rather technical knowledge very well. Steven is very committed to his work and requires personal commitment, but if someone is motivated to improve his language skills, I can only recommend him.

May 11, Karl B. Do not stress out native speakers or your co workers. I have a comprehensive workshop. Boost your speed. Do you feel left out on social networks and chats? Many people work in the US and still cannont assimilate. Why choose Karl B. He helps me in getting more phrase, vocabulary, and some grammar rules. Thank you! I highly recommend him. July 05, David H. I teach from age-5 thru university and adults up to 65yrs. Why choose David H.

A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners

Related A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners



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